"Below tables indicate the subject wise and topic wise analysis based on the IIT Kharagpur Question Papers of Previous Years"

Easy | Medium | Difficult |

**Disclaimer:** We believe that the questions are collected from the proffesors irrespective of the governing IIT hence the complexity of the paper may not depend based on the IIT conducting the exam. The analysis is made based on the students request only.

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

DFA and NFA, Mealy and Moore Machines | DFA | 1 | Easy | ||||

NFA | |||||||

e-NFA | |||||||

Interconversions | |||||||

Minimization | |||||||

Mealy Machines | |||||||

Moore Machines | |||||||

Regular Expressions | Construction of RE | ||||||

Interconversions(RE to FA and FA to RE) | 2 | 1 | Easy | ||||

Regular Languages and Grammars | Regular Grmmars | ||||||

Regular Languages | 1 | 1 | Easy | 2 | Tricky Problem. | ||

Closure Properties | 2 | Tricky | 2 | Tricky Problems but Solvable. | |||

Decision Properties | |||||||

Pumping Lemma | |||||||

PDA | Construction , Example PDAs | ||||||

CFLs | Verifying whether language is CFL or not | 2 | Easy | 1 | Easy-Medium level problems. We can easily solve them. | ||

Clsoure properties | |||||||

Decision Properties | |||||||

Pumping Lemma | |||||||

CFG | Construction | ||||||

Derivation of strings | |||||||

Languages | 4 | 4 (Linked answer question has been asked. It is easy to meduim level problem). | |||||

Turing Machines | Construction | 2 | |||||

Examples | |||||||

Recursive and Recursive Enumerable Languages | RL and RELs | 2 | Easy | ||||

Closure Properties | 2 | Easy | |||||

Decision Properties | 4 | 4 (Linked answer question has been asked. It is easy to meduim level problem). | |||||

Decidability and Undecidabilty | 1 | 2 | Easy to medium level based on decision properties in set 2 and Tricky in set 3 | 1 | Tricky one | ||

Complexity Clasess | 2 | 2 | Easy problem based on the definitions of P, NP in set 1 and tricky in set 3 | ||||

Total | 8 | 6 | 7 | 9 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Introduction to Compilers | Over view of compilers | 1 | Easy | ||||

Lexical Analysis | Tokens, patterns, Lexemes | ||||||

Elimination of Left recursion | |||||||

Parsing | Top down parsers | 1 | Easy | 2 | Easy problems to attempt. | ||

First and Follow functions | |||||||

Shift reduce parsers | 2 | Easy | |||||

Bottom up Parsers(LR(0), SLR(1), CLR(1) and LALR(1) | 2 | Easy question based on shift reduce concept | 1 | Easy to Medium level questions. Chances of doing a silly mistake. | |||

Operator precdence parser | |||||||

SDT | Syntax directed Translations | 2 | Easy | ||||

L-Attributed and S-Attributed defintions | |||||||

Runtime Environments | 1 | Easy to Medium problem | |||||

Symbol Tables | 2 | ||||||

Intermediate Code Generation | Intermediate code | 1 | Easy | ||||

Static Single Assignment | |||||||

AST, CFG, Basic Blocks, DAG | 1 | ||||||

Local Optimization | 4 | One question has been from DAG easy to medium level | 2 | Easy | |||

Data flow Analysis | Data flow Analysis | 1 | Easy question based on data flow analysis | ||||

Constant propagation | |||||||

Live variable Analysis | |||||||

Common Subexpression elimination | |||||||

Total | 3 | 2 | 7 | 9 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Boolean Algebra | Minimal Expressions and logic gates | 2 | 2 | Question to get the function of overflow conditon was asked. If we know all the cases of getting overflow, we can easily solve the given problem. | 2 | Question to get the function of overflow conditon was asked. If we know all the cases of getting overflow, we can easily solve the given problem. | |

K-maps | A question regarding finding the implicants using k-maps was asked for 2 marks. The level of the question is medium. | 2 | A question regarding finding the implicants using k-maps was asked for 2 marks. The level of the question is medium. | ||||

SOP and POS | 3 | 1 | |||||

Number System | Number Representation | 1 | 1 | A gray code conversion question was asked from this topic. The level of the question was easy. | 2 | A gray code conversion question was asked from this topic. The level of the question was easy. | |

IEEE floating point representation | 2 | ||||||

Combinational circuit | Adders | A question of 2 marks is aksed form this topic. The level of the question was easy. | 2 | A question of 2 marks is aksed form this topic. The level of the question was easy. | |||

ROM, PAL, PLA | |||||||

Multiplexers and Decoders | 1 | One question of 2 marks is aksed from this topic. It is an easy and scoring question. | 2 | One question of 2 marks is aksed from this topic. It is an easy and scoring question. | |||

Sequential Circuits | Flip flops | ||||||

Counters | 1 | One easy and one tricky question has been asked from this topic. | 3 | One easy and one tricky question has been asked from this topic. | |||

Circuit output | 2 | ||||||

Total | 4 | 6 | 6 | 13 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Graph Theory | Graph Properties | 2 | 2 | 2 | Havel Hakimi(2)-Set 1, Graph isomorphism(2)-Set 2, Based on planar graph(2)-Set 3 | 4 | 2 questions on Degree of graph(2x2) |

Graph Coloring | |||||||

Connectivity | 2 | 1 | 2 | Number of edges(2)-Set 1, Maximum number of edges(1)-Set 2, Number of edges(2)-Set 3 | 2 | Number of connected components(2) | |

Logic | FOL | 1 | 2 | English to FOL(1)-Set 1, English to FOL(2)-Set 3 | 2 | English to FOL(2) | |

Propositional Logic | 2 | 2 | 1 | Whether expression is true if 2 out 3 variables are exactly true(2)-Set 1, Tautology based question(2)-Set 2, Equivalence and implication based question(1)-Set 3 | 4 | Tautology(2), Find equivalence to given truth table of an unknown binary operator(2) | |

Set Theory & Algebra | Functions | 2 | 1 | 2 | Number of functions(2)-Set 1, Calculate function value(1)-Set 2, Given a function check the correctness of statements (2)-Set 3 | 5 | Number of functions(1)-Easy, Function that permutes elements in set(2)-Difficult, Summation of function(2)-Medium |

Group | 3 | Order of subgroup(1)-Easy , Max number of elements in a group(2)-Medium | 1 | Check group properties(1) | |||

Lattice | |||||||

Relations | 1 | Check partial, total, equivalence relation properties(1) | |||||

Sets | 2 | 1 | Symmetric difference of sets(2), Set cardinality(1) | 2 | Check Set properties(2) | ||

Total | 9 | 8 | 13 | 21 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Linear Algebra | Determinants | 1 | Problems on calculus which uses determinents have been asked. | ||||

Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors | 1 | 2 | 1 | Most Important topic here is Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors asked every year. | |||

System of Linear Equations | 1 | Problems on solution for system of linear equations, whether a system of linear equations have a solution. | 2 | Combination of determinant and number of solutions for the system of equations | |||

Calculus | Limits | Problems of L'Hopitals rule | |||||

Continuity | 2 | Problems on Continuity and discontinuity | |||||

Differentiability | 3 | Problems on rolls theorem and mean value theorem, maxima and minima | |||||

Integeration | 3 | Problems on definite integrals are mostly asked | |||||

Combinatorics | Permutations & Combinations | 2 | Concepts of permutations and combinations are used with concepts of different subjects counting the number of MST's, number of serializable schedule, etc. | ||||

Generating Functions | Problems based on coeffecient a term in an infinite series have been asked. | ||||||

Recurrence Relations | In a few cases problems on recurrence relations are given in the form of words and recurrence relation has to be reframed. | ||||||

Probability | Probability | 3 | 1 | 2 | Questions on probability includes concepts from combinatorics such as princple of inclusion and exclusion. | 2 | Coins problem with indpendent events |

Conditional Probability | Questions on conditional probability | ||||||

Probability Distribution Functions | 1 | Questions are asked based on uniform, normal and poisson distribution, mean, variance and expectation | 1 | Question asked on the concept of expectation | |||

Total | 13 | 4 | 6 | 5 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Numbers | Factors | NIL | |||||

Base System | 2 | It is a moderate level topic, with chance of minor silly mistake. | |||||

Sequence & Series | 1 | 1 | AP, GP formulas are important to be remembered. | ||||

Numerical Computation | 1 | Moderate level topic with some tricks involved. | |||||

Averages & Mixtures | Average | 1 | (optional) | ||||

Arithmetic & Word Based Problems | Clock Time | ||||||

Partnership | 2 | (optional) | |||||

Direction Sense | 2 | ||||||

Ratio & Proportion | |||||||

Percentage | |||||||

Speed, Time & Distance | 2 | 2 | Easy level topic, concentrate on doing correct calculations with the help of the virtual calculator available. | ||||

Geometry | Circle | ||||||

Triangle | |||||||

Mensuration | |||||||

Misc. | 2 | Vast topic with chances of some moderate to hard problems, need to learn all the necessary formulaes. | |||||

Algebra | Functions | ||||||

Equations | 1 | 2 | (optional) | ||||

Data Interpretation | Contour Plots | ||||||

Line Graph | 2 | 2 | Problems are sometimes lengthy, need to be attentive enough so that you do not miss the necessary observations. | ||||

Bar Graph | |||||||

Tabular | 2 | 1 | Its better to analyse the tables very minutely and just note down all the necessary information required in the rough sheet. | ||||

Pie Chart | |||||||

Venn Diagrams | |||||||

Analytical Aptitude | Logic | ||||||

Analogy | |||||||

Numerical Relations and Reasoning | |||||||

Spatial Aptitude | Translation | ||||||

Rotation | |||||||

Scaling | |||||||

Mirroring | |||||||

Assembling and Grouping | |||||||

Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 3D and 2D | |||||||

Miscellaneous | Maxima & Minima | ||||||

Logical Reasoning | |||||||

Odd One | |||||||

Permutation & Combination | |||||||

Probablity | |||||||

Misc | |||||||

English | Grammar | 1 | Its is dynamic, answer only those questions for which you are confident and you know the correct answer. Passage reading is scoring if direct questions are asked out of it, so reading the same carefully is very important. | ||||

Grammatical Sentence | |||||||

Meaning | 2 | 1 | |||||

Most Appropriate word | 1 | 1 | |||||

Passage Reading | 2 | 4 | 4 | ||||

Statement Sufficiency | |||||||

Statements Follow | |||||||

Tenses | 1 | 1 | |||||

Verbal Reasoning | 2 | ||||||

Word Pairs | |||||||

Misc | 1 | ||||||

Total | 15 | 15 | 15 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sorting and Searching | Sorting Algorithms | 1 | 1 | This is a scoring topic, questions are usually easy and not much tricky. | 2 | Question based on quick sort and comprison of properties of sorting algorithms were asked, this is fairly easy and scoring topic. | |

Searching | 2 | This is a scoring topic, questions are rarely asked but there are other areas where the concepts of this topic will be applied. | 1 | Question was asked on the minimum number of coparions for min and max in an array it is an easy topic if one coveres all the related algorithms. | |||

Time complexity algorithms | Time complexity of given code | 1 | Questions form this topic vary from easy to morderate and may be tricky at times. | 1 | Small fragment of code based on which time compelxity quesiton was asked. | ||

Recurrence reation | 1 | This topic is easy and scoring mostly quesiton can be solve using master theorem, if one practtces Master Theorem/ Substitution method and recurrence tree method he must be able to solve all the problems. | 2 | Queston based on a recurrence realtion was asked, it was a medium level and fairly easy to solve.' | |||

Linked Lists ,Stacks and Queues | Stacks and Queues | 2 | Basic understandin of stacks and queues and its implementation is nencessary to solve any quesiotn for this topic. | ||||

Trees, Hashing & Collision Resolution | Hashing | 2 | 2 | Quesitons for this topic vary from moderate to hard, quesiton based on probabilty was asked which made it tricky the key is to form the events properly. | |||

Trees and Tree traversal | 1 | 1 | Question based on array based implementaion and tree traversal has been asked, this is a fairly easy topic one needs to have a proper understanding of the code as well as sometimes quesiton based on the code is also asked. | 1 | Question was asked based on tree traversal it is an easy topic if one has proper understanding on basic tree traversal techniques. | ||

Heaps/Heap sort | 1 | Question based on the max heap was asked which is easy to solve. | 5 | Quesiton based on how to find the minimum element from the max heap and validitiy of heap and insertion on heap was asked this is a fairly easy topic which one can score easily | |||

Graphs and Graph Traversals, Minimal Spanning Trees, Shortest Paths | Minimal spanning trees | 2 | Question based on Number of MST was asked which is easy, question from this topic are not much difficult, with knowledge of Kruskals. Prims and cut properlty most of the quesiton can be solved. | 3 | Question based on kruskals algoirthm(order of addition of edges) and a direct question on calcualting the weight of MST was asked. | ||

BFS and DFS and its applications | 2 | 1 | 1 | Questions were asked on shortest paths based on BFS and appliecaions of DFS such as SCC(strongly connected components), on this topic problems could be both easy and tricky. | 3 | Quesiton was asked baed on propertes of DFS and another quesiton as was asked on single source shortest path using BFS. | |

Greedy Approach and Dynamic Programming. | Greedy Approach | 2 | Question based on optimal merge pattern was asked which as easy, see at most one question on greedy algorithms mostly. | ||||

Dynamic Programming | 2 | Quesiton was asked from Longes common subsquece, quesiton are at times easy and at times tricky from this topic. | 2 | A pseudo code was given and qeusiton was asked about its working, questions can be tricky from dynamic programming. | |||

Total | 7 | 11 | 7 | 20 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ER and Relational Model | ER diagrams | It is an easy topic, if we are clear about all the relationships and boundary cases we can easily solve the questions from this topic. | 2 | The question was asked in combination with the sQL. It was a query plan quesiton. This topic(query plan) is no more the part of GATE syllabus. | |||

Relational Schema and key constraints | 1 | 2 | 1 | It is a medium level topic. The contraints of the relations sometimes confuse us and make us fall into the trap. | |||

RA, TRC, and SQL | Relational Algebra | 3 | This is tricky topic. Not difficult if we are clear about all the RA operations. | ||||

Relational Calculus | It is difficult to understand TRC and DRC query due to the use of quantifiers. Questions are rarely asked from this topic. | ||||||

SQL | 2 | 4 | 2 | Both easy and medium level questions are asked from SQL. We suggest students to have clear underdstanding of the clauses and stick to the GATE standards for the use of clauses in a valid query. | 4 | One question if of medium level while one is easy. | |

FD and Normalisation | FD Decomposition | 3 | It is fairly easy topic and the most scoring part from DBMS. | 2 | The question asked was very easy and a scoring question. | ||

Normalisation | It is fairly easy topic and the most scoring part from DBMS. | ||||||

Transaction and concurrency control | Recoverability and Serializability | 2 | 2 | Both recoverability and serializabiliyt are important topics rom DBMS. They are easy to solve. We may expect atleast one question from this topic in every test. | |||

Lock based protocol | It is an easy topic, just needs practice. | ||||||

Timestamp ordering protocol | It is medium level topic. We are clear with all the TSP conditions of read and write we can solve the problem with minimum trouble. It sometimes confuse us with the answer so we have to be careful while solving problem from this topic. | ||||||

Log based recovery | Questions are rarely asked from this topic but they are majorily tricky. We need to be careful while solving the problems from this sections( must have information all the recovery systems in DBMS). | 1 | The question asked was of medium level. | ||||

Indexing | B & B+ trees | It is easy topic but questions asked are bit tricky. We need to be careful while solving the problems. | |||||

Total | 8 | 6 | 6 | 9 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Process Management | Process Scheduling & Scheduling algorithms | 2 | 2 | 2 | SRTF based question(2)-Set 1, Round Robin with IO(2)-Set 2, SRTF based question(2)-Set 3 | 5 | Number of Context switches(1), % of CPU idle(2) , LRTF(2) |

Fork | |||||||

System Calls (Newly added) | |||||||

Interrupts | |||||||

Threads | 1 | User vs Kernel level threads(1) | |||||

Concurrency and Synchronization | Synchronization Mechanism Requirements (ME, Progress, Bounded Waiting) | 4 | 2 questions on Barrier Synchronization (2x2) | ||||

Software based solution (Lock variable, Strict Alternation, Peterson's Solution, etc) | |||||||

Hardware based solution (Disable Interrupts, TSL, Swap, etc) | 2 | Atomic Fetch and Set(2) | |||||

OS based solution (Semaphores, Sleep & Wakeup, etc) | 2 | Producer Consumer semaphore based question(2) | |||||

Concurrency Mechanism - Precedence Graph (Parbegin - Parend, Fork - Join ), Concurrent Execution | |||||||

Deadlock | Deadlock Prevention | ||||||

Deadlock Avoidance (Banker's Algorithm) | |||||||

Deadlock Detection & Recovery (Resource Allocation Graph) | |||||||

Resource Allocation & Current System State | 2 | 2 | Resource allocation and system state(2)-Set 1, Minimum number of resources required(2)-Set 3 | 2 | Resource allocation criteria to avoid deadlock (2) | ||

Memory Management | Partitioning (Fixed & Variable) | ||||||

Paging (Single Level, Multi-level Paging) | 2 | EMAT paging with TLB(2) | |||||

Demand Paging (Page fault) | 4 | Tlb tag(2), theoretical question on Virtual Memory(2) | |||||

Segmentation | |||||||

Page Replacement | 2 | 2 | 1 | OPT policy (2)-Set 1, Comparing OPT with other replacement algorithm(2)-Set 2, LRU page faults(1)-Set 3 | |||

File Systems | Disks | 1 | Max file size(1) | ||||

File Allocation Methods | |||||||

ADisk Scheduling | 1 | SSTF disk scheduling(1) | |||||

Total Marks Per Year | 8 | 7 | 7 | 17 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

For Loop & Array | For loop | 4 | Two questions of 2 marks on for loop it is medium | 2 | 2 Mark question on while loop and arrays medium level question | ||

Array | |||||||

Static and struct keyword | Static Keyword | 2 | 2 mark question on static keyword and conditional statemet if it is medium. | ||||

Function Calling | Function call | 3 | 1 Mark question on recursion it is easy. Another 2 mark question on recursion is medium | 2 | 2 mark pass by reference question is medium | ||

String and Pointer | String & Pointer | 1 | 1 mark question on pointer easy | 2 | 2 mark question on swapping and includes pointer bit hard | ||

Miscellaneous Topics | Dynamic allocation (malloc) | ||||||

Unary operators | |||||||

Static & dynamic Scoping | |||||||

Misc. | 1 | 2 | 1 mark question on the variables mostly calcuation based medium-Set 2, 2 mark question based on eng maths as well as combination of pseudo code asked for transose of matrix it is hard-Set 3 | ||||

Total | 5 | 6 | 2 | 6 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Physical layer | |||||||

Data link layer | Flow control | 2 | Easy question on efficiency of sliding winow protocol | 4 | Two questions asked one is easy and onther is medium | ||

MAC protocols | |||||||

LAN technologies | 2 | Medium level question on token ring protocol based on numerical. | |||||

Error detection | 1 | Simple one mark question on bit stuffing | |||||

Framing | |||||||

LAN devices | 4 | Two questions asked on bridges it is linked questions one is easy another is medium | |||||

Network layer | IPV4 header | 1 | 1 | Easy question on TTL with diagram-Set 2, Simple one mark questionon IPV4 header asked about TTL, frgamnet offset etc-Set 3 | 1 | Easy question on TTL | |

Fragmentation | 2 | 2 mark question on fragmentation DF, MF etc | |||||

Routing | 1 | 1 | Medium level question on the distance vector and the link state routing-Set 1, Theory question on RIP and OSPF protocol-Set 2 | ||||

IP addressing | 2 | 2 mark question on subnetting based on table medium question. | 2 | It is a easy question on subnetting | |||

Switching | |||||||

Protocols | 2 | 2 mark questions on wrap around numerical question lil bit tough | |||||

Traffic shaping | |||||||

Transport layer | Flow control | ||||||

Congestion control | 2 | Easy question on congestion control AIMD | |||||

TCP transition state | |||||||

TCP socket | 1 | Easy theory question on socket | |||||

UDP | |||||||

Application layer | HTTP/SMTP/POP3/ IMPA4 | 1 | 2 | Simple theory based question on HTTP and DNS-Set 1, Question on HTTP based on security tough one but security is not part of syllabus now-Set 2 | |||

DNS/DHCP | 2 | Two mark question again from HTTP medium level question, connection establishment question | |||||

Mixed questions | Layering | 1 | Simple general question on OSI layer theory question. | ||||

Total | 8 | 7 | 9 | 11 |

Topics | Sub Topics | 2014 (Set 1) |
2014 (Set 2) |
2014 (Set 3) |
Analysis | 2006 | Analysis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Machine instructions and addressing modes | Memory Interfacing | ||||||

Machine Instructions( Including Instruction Format) [easy] | 1 | Easy | 3 | GATE 2006 1- mark question is easy and 2-Marks question is tricky or difficult level | |||

CPU Organization | |||||||

Addressing Modes | |||||||

ALU, data‐path and control unit | Control Unit and design | 1 | Easy | ||||

Hardwired Control unit | 1 | Easy | |||||

Micro programmed control unit | 1 | Easy | |||||

Instruction pipelining | Pipelining [must for rankers] | 2 | 3 | Easy-Set 1, Pipeline execution times has been asked and it is an easy to medium level problem- Set 3 | |||

Performance of a Computer (Speed Up) | 2 | GATE 2006- Easy to Medium level problem | |||||

RISC and CISC | |||||||

Instruction Cycles | 2 | Medium | |||||

Pipeline dependencies | |||||||

Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storagev [Very easy to understand] | Memory Hierarchy(AMAT) | 2 | Average memory access time Easy to Medium | 6 | 2(Tricky) + 4(Linked answer question has been asked from direct mapping and set associative mapping . It is an easy to medium level problem and we can easily solve it) | ||

Cache Memory | 2 | 1 Mark question for the TAG bits which is easy to solve | |||||

Direct Mapping | |||||||

Associative Mapping | |||||||

Set-associative Mapping | 3 | Easy to Medium level problems from cache Mapping techniques | |||||

Cache Replacement policies | 2 | Meduim-tricky problem | |||||

Secondary Storage | |||||||

I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode) | I/O Interface | ||||||

DMA | |||||||

Total | 6 | 7 | 5 | 11 |

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